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Identities of "users" in GNUnet are called egos. Egos can be used as pseudonyms (fake names) or be tied to an organization (for example, GNU) or even the actual identity of a human. GNUnet users are expected to have many egos. They might have one tied to their real identity, some for organizations they manage, and more for different domains where they want to operate under a pseudonym.
The IDENTITY service allows users to manage their egos. The identity service manages the private keys egos of the local user; it does not manage identities of other users (public keys). Public keys for other users need names to become manageable. GNUnet uses the GNU Name System (GNS) to give names to other users and manage their public keys securely. This chapter is about the IDENTITY service, which is about the management of private keys.
On the network, an ego corresponds to an ECDSA key (over Curve25519, using RFC 6979, as required by GNS). Thus, users can perform actions under a particular ego by using (signing with) a particular private key. Other users can then confirm that the action was really performed by that ego by checking the signature against the respective public key.
The IDENTITY service allows users to associate a human-readable name with each ego. This way, users can use names that will remind them of the purpose of a particular ego. The IDENTITY service will store the respective private keys and allows applications to access key information by name. Users can change the name that is locally (!) associated with an ego. Egos can also be deleted, which means that the private key will be removed and it thus will not be possible to perform actions with that ego in the future.
Additionally, the IDENTITY subsystem can associate service functions with egos. For example, GNS requires the ego that should be used for the shorten zone. GNS will ask IDENTITY for an ego for the "gns-short" service. The IDENTITY service has a mapping of such service strings to the name of the ego that the user wants to use for this service, for example "my-short-zone-ego".
Finally, the IDENTITY API provides access to a special ego, the anonymous ego. The anonymous ego is special in that its private key is not really private, but fixed and known to everyone. Thus, anyone can perform actions as anonymous. This can be useful as with this trick, code does not have to contain a special case to distinguish between anonymous and pseudonymous egos.